Science and Technology
1. First Summit of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A. (December 1994)
The Miami Summit identified a need to increase interaction and cooperation among the regions science and technology ("S&T") infrastructure and mechanisms. Initiative 14, which set out the hemispheres S&T objectives, also called for the assistance of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), an initiative launched by U.S. Vice-President Gore. Miami also called for the promotion of the Bolivar Program, and the OAS Common Market of Scientific and Technical Knowledge (MERCOCYT) program, in order to increase partnerships and technological S&T ventures. The Summit also called for enhanced professional technical training, development and implementation of national policies and regional programs, dissemination and standardization of S&T (including metrology and other technical norms), environmental technology development, and more effective partnerships to promote learning and competitiveness.
The Heads of State in Miami also mandated that ministers responsible for S&T should meet to assess progress, promote the Bolivar Program and MERCOCYT and provide the support needed to improve partnerships and technological ventures throughout the hemisphere. This meeting would also facilitate ongoing dialogue and progress.
2. Between the Summits (January 1995- March 1998)
The first such ministerial meeting was set for Cartagena, Colombia, in March of 1996. Representatives of the OAS, IDB, and UNESCO attended. The Meeting resulted in a Declaration of Principles, as well as a Plan of Action, which included 43 specific commitments over a vast array of areas. The Principles set out to increase cooperation in S&T in the hemisphere. In addition, countries are encouraged to formulate national policies for development in the area, to address critical areas such as improving human resources and technological innovation, and applying such improvements to sustainable and equitable development. Finally, the Ministers committed to assure the effective participation of small and less developed economies. With respect to the latter, MERCOCYT was requested to organize a special forum within the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI) within the framework of the OAS. MERCOCYT has since become very active in support of the hemispheric initiatives. 4 Meetings were held (in June of 1996, October, 1996, May, 1997, and October, 1997) in various locations.
Other initiatives in the S&T which were initiated between the two hemispheric summits include:
Other organizations and initiatives that have been active in the S&T field include:
Several workshops and seminars were also held to advance the S&T agenda. These included: