Organization of American States Summits of the Americas
     
Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates
 

2
   
ENVIRONMENT
MANDATES

  1. To prioritize the allocation of resources and the design of financial protection strategies, as appropriate, aimed at mitigating the social, economic, and environmental impact of disasters, with support from, inter alia, subregional, regional, and international financial institutions. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. We recognise that social and economic development and protection of the environment, including the sustainable management of natural resources, are mutually reinforcing, interdependent pillars of sustainable development. We therefore reaffirm our strong commitment to sustainable development, as set out in the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development, the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA), the 1996 Declaración de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, the 2002 Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development, the 2005 Mauritius Strategy for the implementation of the BPOA, the 2006 Declaration of Santa Cruz + 10 and the objectives of the United Nations Millennium Declaration (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We recognise the adverse impacts of climate change on all countries of the Hemisphere, in particular, Small Island Developing States, countries with low-lying coastal, arid and semi-arid areas or areas liable to floods, drought and desertification, developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems and land locked countries. We reaffirm our commitment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its objective of achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. We recognise that deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions will be required to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention, respecting its principles, notably that which states that we should protect the climate system for the benefit of the present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity, and in accordance with our common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We also support further dialogue and cooperation under the UNFCCC in order to strengthen long-term cooperative action, pursuant to the 2007 Bali Action Plan, and commit to work towards an agreed outcome at the Fifteenth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP15) in Copenhagen in 2009, to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We will continue to work towards promoting good environmental governance by, inter alia, advancing conservation efforts and strengthening, implementing and effectively enforcing national environmental laws, in accordance with our sustainable development priorities and international law (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We will collaborate to promote environmental sustainability through regional cooperation, in accordance with national legislation and applicable international law, in the areas of human and institutional capacity building, transfer on mutually agreed terms of environmentally sound technology, and effective mobilisation of new and additional human and financial resources, as appropriate, including innovative public and private financing mechanisms and instruments, for inter alia:

    1. the sustainable management of forests, including efforts for reducing deforestation;
    2. the sustainable management of protected areas and World Heritage Sites;
    3. protecting endangered and migratory species;
    4. combating illegal international trafficking of biodiversity;
    5. promoting the exchange of scientific knowledge on biodiversity, such as through the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network; and,
    6. recognising and sharing the benefits arising from access to and use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We recognise that the conservation of marine resources and the protection of marine ecosystems, including estuaries and coastal areas, throughout the Americas are vital for the continued economic and social well-being of those who live near or otherwise depend on the sea. We will seek to secure the wider adoption and implementation of existing regional and international marine conservation and marine pollution agreements. We further recognise that the wider Caribbean is a marine area of unique biodiversity and highly fragile ecosystems, and we will continue to work together along with other countries and relevant regional and international development partners to continue to develop and implement regional initiatives to promote the sustainable conservation and management of Caribbean coastal and marine resources. In this regard, we take note of the ongoing efforts to consider the concept of the Caribbean Sea as a Special Area in the context of sustainable development without prejudice to relevant national legislation and international law (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We renew our support for the Inter-American Program for Sustainable Development (PIDS) (2006-2009), and we instruct the relevant Ministers and invite all other authorities responsible for sustainable development to gather in 2010, under the auspices of the OAS, with the collaboration of relevant international organisations and financial and development institutions, and with the participation of the academic community and other members of civil society, to assess the achievements of the Program to date, and renew or modify the PIDS as necessary. We will give special attention to the most vulnerable areas (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We renew our support for the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), whose findings provide valuable information on climate change mitigation and adaptation. We call upon the relevant Ministers and other responsible authorities, and with the support of relevant international and regional organisations including those of the Joint Summit Working Group (JSWG), within the scope of their mandates and capabilities, to consider the findings of the IPCC with the aim of examining, as appropriate, the potential implications for our respective countries, in particular the poorest and the most vulnerable sectors, in order to reinforce national adaptation and mitigation actions and plans, and to inform, as appropriate, sub-regional plans for the management of the impact of climate change. We will enhance our cooperation in this area throughout the region (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We acknowledge the challenge of environmental management in the Hemisphere. We commit our governments to strengthen environmental protection and sustainable use of natural resources with a view to ensuring a balance among economic development, social development and the protection of the environment, as these are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Our goal is to achieve sustainable development throughout the Hemisphere (Declaration of Québec, 2001).

  1. Recognizing that the protection of the environment and the sustainable use of natural resources are essential to prosperity and to the sustainability of our economies, as well as the quality of life and health for present and future generations; and committed to advancing sustainable development throughout the Hemisphere consistent with our 1994 and 1998 Summit of the Americas Declarations and Plans of Action and the 1996 Santa Cruz de la Sierra Declaration and Plan of Action:(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Welcome the outcomes and endorse the areas of cooperation identified at the recent hemispheric meeting of Ministers responsible for the Environment held in Montreal ;( Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Reaffirm our commitments to implement Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) to which we are party, including through enactment and effective enforcement of any necessary domestic laws, reiterating common and differentiated responsibilities as set forth in Principle 7 of the1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and taking into account the needs and concerns of small developing countries and noting, in this context, the recently concluded Global Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; also stress the need to build synergies among MEAs to enhance their effectiveness in implementation and to strengthen international cooperation;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Support the preparatory process for the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development to review progress achieved in the implementation of the outcome of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, focusing on areas where further efforts are needed to implement Agenda 21 and explore ways to reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable development ;( Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Request the OAS through its General Secretariat, in coordination with other agencies, to organize a meeting at the ministerial level before the end of 2001, to be held in Bolivia on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the Santa Cruz de la Sierra Summit of 1996, and present contributions to the Rio+10 Summit in 2002, recognizing that by its nature , sustainable development has long-term goals that require the countries of the Hemisphere to act in concert in this area;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Request the United Nations Environment Program (UNP.) and PAHO to support the convening of a regional meeting between Ministers responsible for the Environment and Ministers of Health to take stock of progress achieved, to identify priority areas for renewed emphasis and cooperative initiatives, and to explore ways of moving forward in the Americas and globally, with a view to contributing to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development , recognizing the links between the environment and human health;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Resolve, as parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to pursue its objectives in accordance with its provisions and to address the issue of climate change as a priority for action, working constructively through international processes in order to make the necessary progress to ensure a sound and effective response to climate change; recognize the vulnerabilities in all our countries, in particular of Small Island Developing States and low lying coastal states, and the need to support the conduct of vulnerability assessments, the development and implementation of adaptation strategies, capacity building and technology transfer;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the adoption, implementation and enforcement of national legislation , regulations, standards and policies that provide for high levels of environmental protection , recognizing the right of each country to set its own levels of environmental protection and, to this end, reinforce cooperative partnerships, placing particular emphasis on achieving cleaner air, enhancing access to safe water and sanitation services, and strengthening national and regional capacities for integrated water resources management and for waste management;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Consult and coordinate domestically and regionally, as appropriate, with the aim of ensuring that economic, social and environmental policies are mutually supportive and contribute to sustainable development, building on existing initiatives undertaken by relevant regional and international organizations;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Support initiatives such as the Hemispheric Round-table for Cleaner Production in furtherance of our efforts to promote partnerships among government, industry and civil society and advance, as appropriate, the Plans of Action and the Global Cleaner Production Information Network launched at the 2000 Montreal International Pollution Prevention Summit; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote and support implementation of priorities for action set out in the Bahia Declaration on Chemical Safety at the national level, particularly those aimed at increasing public access to information on toxic substances and at strengthening capacity in this area;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote improved environmental management at the municipal level, including through information exchange among local communities, the development of environmentally sound technology and the promotion of partnerships to facilitate, as appropriate, technology transfer, capacity building, including the strengthening of local institutions and services, and support for initiatives such as the World Bank Clean Air Initiative and IDB programs in this area;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Advance hemispheric conservation of plants, animals and ecosystems through, as appropriate: capacity building, expanding partnership networks and information sharing systems, including the Inter American Biodiversity Network; cooperation in the fight against illegal trade in wildlife; strengthening of cooperation arrangements for terrestrial and marine natural protected areas, including adjacent border parks and important areas for shared species; support for regional ecosystem conservation mechanisms; the development of a hemispheric strategy to support the conservation of migratory wildlife throughout the Americas, with the active engagement of civil society; and the promotion the objectives and the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the adoption of concrete and urgent actions towards the implementation of sustainable forest management; promote policies, practices, incentives and investment in support of sustainable forest management, building on existing hemispheric initiatives and cooperation, as well as support the UN Forum on Forests and its program of work;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Reaffirm our commitment to advancing environmental stewardship in the area of energy by advancing policies, practices, transference of and access to technologies, that are economically efficient and take the environmental impacts of energy development and use into account; and endorse and support the work of the Hemispheric Energy Initiative in this area;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the development of environmentally sound exploitation and management of minerals and metals, recognizing the importance of the social and economic dimensions of the activities of the mining sector, and support the work of regional and international fora in this area; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. We will strengthen national, hemispheric, and international efforts aimed at environmental protection as a basis for sustainable development that provides human beings a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. The commitments undertaken at the Miami Summit and the Summit on Sustainable Development held in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, provide a solid basis for strengthening our actions. As parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, we underscore the importance of working together to further fulfillment of the agreement reached at the Conference in Kyoto, Japan, and to promote its ratification in our countries. Moreover, we will work closely to make preparations for a Conference of the Parties to be held in November of this year in Buenos Aires, Argentina (Declaration of Santiago, 1998).

  1. We acknowledge that the development of energy links between our countries and the intensification of trade in the energy sector strengthen and foster the integration of the Americas. Energy integration, based on competitive and transparent activities, and in compliance with national conditions and objectives, contributes to the sustainable development of our nations and to the improvement of the quality of life of our people with minimum impact on the environment (Declaration of Santiago, 1998)

  1. Encourage the Parties to work toward achieving the objectives and goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Recognize the key role that technology plays in managing the environmental aspects related to energy, and encourage the exchange of technology, information and experiences, as well as share views on the Clean Development Mechanism. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. We, the elected Heads of State and Government of the Americas, gathered in Santa Cruz de la Sierra as decided at the Summit of the Americas held in Miami in 1994, reaffirm our determination to move forward toward sustainable development and to implement the decisions and commitments set forth in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, which were adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
    We also reaffirm the commitments undertaken in the Declaration of Principles and the Plan of Action of the Summit of the Americas.

    We undertake to promote the agreements reached at the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Barbados in 1994, and recognize the importance of the principles enunciated at recent United Nations conferences concerning sustainable development.
    We support the efforts launched at the hemispheric, regional, and subregional levels, such as the Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, the Treaty for Amazonian Cooperation, and the Permanent South Pacific Commission.Declaración de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  1. We reaffirm that human beings are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature and, as such, are the focus of sustainable development concerns. Development strategies need to include sustainability as an essential requirement for the balanced, interdependent, and integral attainment of economic, social, and environmental goals. (Declaración de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  1. Recognizing that globalization, efforts toward integration, and the complexity of environmental issues pose challenges and offer opportunities to the countries in the Hemisphere, we pledge to work together (Declaración de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 12. Promote the conservation and restoration of soils through the application of technologies and economic policies to reverse soil degradation processes and to remedy the problems of significant soil erosion including in mountainous areas and, when applicable, problems that result from misuse of natural resources. Promote also hemispheric cooperation for implementation, as appropriate, at the national and regional levels, of the 1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, with special attention to the appendix related to our region.(Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 17. Continue to participate actively in the international dialogue on forest issues initiated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests under the auspices of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. In this respect, it is necessary to give full attention to all the program elements included in the terms of reference approved by the Panel. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 18. Seek to establish, implement, and monitor, as appropriate, national plans and programs for the conservation and sustainable management of forests. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 19. Develop appropriate mechanisms to promote opportunities for public participation in the sustainable management of forests, including on the part of indigenous and local communities, whose culture and needs should be respected and supported. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 20. Cooperate in the development of policies and comprehensive strategies for achieving sustainable forest management, bilaterally and through programs such as the International Model Forest Network, as well as consider ways and means to address the critical areas related to the transfer and development of environmentally sound technology, on favorable terms as mutually agreed. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 21. Support criteria and indicators at the regional, subregional, and national levels as mechanisms for assessing progress toward sustainable forest management. Continue to participate, as appropriate, in the ongoing initiatives relating to the development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management, such as the Tarapoto and Montreal processes. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 23. As appropriate, seek the ratification of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, and seek the adoption of legislative, administrative, and other policy measures to implement the provisions or promote the objectives of these conventions. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 24. Develop, as appropriate, national policies and regulations on access to and protection of genetic resources, including endemic gene pools, and promote research on the identification and economic valuation of biological diversity. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 25. Promote, as appropriate and in accordance with existing legislation and agreements, and with appropriate input from local stakeholders, the identification of cross-border protected areas and national parks which the respective neighboring countries consider to be critical sites for biodiversity conservation. Further, promote cooperation among those countries with a view to improving the sustainable management of those areas. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 26. Promote research and training programs on conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 27. Promote the exchange of innovative experience on partnerships for the management of protected areas. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 28. Consider, in accordance with the terms of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, ways and means for the effective protection and use of traditional knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous people and other local communities relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, as well as for fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from such knowledge, innovations, and practices. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 29. Pursuant to the objectives of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, promote discussions on biological diversity at the inter-American level to propose substantive strategies with a view to overcoming the challenges related to the conservation, sustainable use, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological diversity in the Hemisphere. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 30. Promote continued financial and technical cooperation at the multilateral, bilateral, and national levels and the development of financial instruments and funding mechanisms that support the aforementioned conventions. Promote at the national, multilateral, or international level as appropriate, inter alia, increased domestic public and private sector investments, risk capital funds, cost recovery mechanisms, and national environmental funds. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 31. Seek to establish an Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network, primarily through the Internet, that will promote compatible means of collection, communication, and exchange of information relevant to decision-making and education on biodiversity conservation, and that builds upon such initiatives as the Clearing-House Mechanism provided for in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, the Man and Biosphere Network (MABNET Americas), and the Biodiversity Conservation Information System (BCIS), an initiative of nine programs of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and partner organizations. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 41. Develop strategies that encourage policies and programs for prevention of and protection against pollution, cleaning up of the environment, and waste treatment, strengthening sustainable urban development. These policies may include public-private sector associations, market-based programs, and other volunteer programs. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 42. Develop a hemispheric framework for the exchange of information on and experiences in successful pollution prevention and waste treatment efforts as an appropriate means of managing the environment so as to support national policies in these areas. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 43. Promote the exchange of information and experiences among the mayors of the Hemisphere on the most appropriate practices for urban environmental stewardship, promotion of non-polluting consumer practices, sustainable transportation, environmental impact, and sewage treatment. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 45. Foster the inclusion of sustainable development in urban development plans, including mechanisms for evaluating the environmental impact. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 46. Promote cooperation in order to continue the development and implementation of national plans for the gradual elimination of lead in gasoline and the improvement of public transportation and other means of transport to make them environmentally sound. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • II.4. Water Resources and Coastal Areas
    Recognizing that the primary challenges to the attainment of sustainable development in this area include:

    • Assurance and improvement of the conservation, sustainable management and utilization of water resources, including the development of integrated programs and institutional capacity;
    • Prevention of the contamination of water resources and assurance that drinking water supplies are safe and adequate;
    • Promotion of cooperation among countries at bilateral, subregional, regional, and hemispheric levels on water resources issues;
    • Promotion of user participation in the decision-making process on water resources management;
    • Conservation and utilization, in a sustainable manner, of inland, coastal, and marine water resources, including wetlands, in the region;
    • Promotion of the integrated management and sustainable development of the marine environment and coastal areas; and
    • Prevention and control of environmental degradation caused by pollution and the unsustainable use of inland, coastal, and marine water resources that threaten human health and the economic viability and environmental integrity of these resources,
    Taking into consideration the social, economic, and environmental value of inland, coastal, and marine water resources, the Governments will carry out the following initiatives: (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 48. Implement, in accordance with national laws and practice, integrated water resources management actions using watersheds and river basins as planning units whenever possible. These actions should include surface water and groundwater assessments and the preparation of strategic plans for water resource management, as well as the use of water utility revenues under local control, where appropriate, to fund watershed protection and the work of river basin authorities. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 49. Develop, strengthen, implement, and coordinate at the national or local level, as appropriate, water resources policies, laws, and regulations to ensure the protection and conservation of water resources. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 50. Promote hemispheric cooperation at all levels, including through the use of existing transboundary agreements and initiatives, in the conservation, management, and sustainable use of water resources and biological diversity. This would include the exchange of information and experiences on issues related to inland watersheds, river basins, and sub-basins. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 51. Improve access to appropriate and environmentally sound technologies, including through public-private cooperation and market mechanisms, and promote the transfer of information on policies and management strategies to accommodate the growing water resource demands resulting from rural, urban, agricultural, and industrial activities. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 52. Cooperate, in accordance with national legislation and relevant international instruments, in the development and improvement of pollution prevention and source reduction programs for agriculture, aquaculture, and industrial and urban activities, and integrate these efforts into national strategies. These should include actions to reduce risks to human health and the environment posed by pollution from chemicals and toxic substances that persist in the environment. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 53. Promote public participation in the planning and decision-making process related to water resources. Public participation could be enhanced through education and awareness programs in schools and local communities. Where appropriate, establish public-private partnerships to promote programs that encourage compliance with laws and the adoption of mitigation measures to address water resources issues. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 54. Develop and strengthen at the national and regional levels, as appropriate, research and monitoring capabilities pertaining to the conservation of inland, coastal, and marine water resources , especially in relation to environmental health parameters, including sanitary water quality criteria and the health status of coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grass beds. In this regard, consideration should be given to the work being done in the region, which should be continued. Data collected will be incorporated into a study that will document the current state of health of the coastal and marine environment; establish benchmark indicators for assessing the effectiveness of national, regional, and international instruments and initiatives; and identify and categorize land and marine-based sources of pollution. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 55. Develop and implement environmental education and awareness programs to promote sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 56. Promote the development or strengthening, as appropriate, of institutional capabilities at the national level or, where specific agreements exist, at the subregional level, especially in land use planning, coastal zone management, coastal engineering, environmental impact assessment, environmental protection and natural resource management laws, hydrography, fisheries and marine affairs management. This should be supported by promoting the establishment of a marine environment center for the Caribbean and the design and development of model legislation which could serve as the basis for national legislation that would provide an integrated and sustainable approach to the management of coastal and marine resources. Such model legislation should be consistent with relevant international treaties to which states are party and enhance the effectiveness of government policies and programs. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 57. Cooperate in the development, strengthening and implementation of pollution prevention programs and regional disaster mitigation plans, including contingency and response arrangements to combat oil spills and other forms of pollution which have an impact on water resources. This should include mechanisms to reduce current levels of marine pollution and, where necessary, the development and implementation of sanitary water quality criteria and effluent standards and guidelines. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 58. Develop programs at the national and regional levels, as appropriate, to implement the Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities, as well as seek to implement the relevant recommendations of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) as developed at the 1995 Tropical Americas Workshop (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 64. Incorporate environmental policy instruments that mitigate and remediate the negative effects of local emissions, effluents, solid waste, and land use derived from the processes of production, transformation, transportation, and use of energy and of minerals. Such instruments include market mechanisms, incentives, voluntary programs, public-private partnerships, and regulatory initiatives. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • III.1 Institutional Arrangements
    The primary responsibility for implementing the Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of the Americas falls to governments, individually and collectively, with the participation of all sectors of our societies. To realize both meaningful follow-up and continued adherence to the cross-cutting dimensions of sustainable development, the Governments will :( Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • III.12. Request that the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), among other organs, agencies, and organizations of the United Nations system, to develop adequate mechanisms to collaborate and coordinate with the OAS within their respective areas of action and mandates, to support national, regional, and hemispheric efforts toward sustainable development. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • III.14. Promote coordination and complementarity between the processes for follow-up and implementation of the Plan of Action of the Summit of the Americas and the Plan of Action on Sustainable Development. To achieve this objective the Inter-American Committee on Sustainable Development (CIDS) and the Summit Implementation Review Group (SIRG) should exchange the relevant information. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • III.15. Cooperate in the establishment of a hemispheric network of officials and experts in environmental law, enforcement, and compliance in coordination with the OAS to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experiences and to provide a focal point, as appropriate, for carrying out cooperative efforts to strengthen laws, regulations, and implementation, as well as training in these areas for those states seeking such assistance, taking into account the studies prepared by the Inter-American Juridical Committee..(Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996)

  • III.2.11. Optimize the use of programs of existing multilateral, nongovernmental, and bilateral assistance agencies that offer funding and technical assistance for the start-up of projects related to clean technologies, the efficient use of resources, and the maintenance of renewable natural resources in support of this Plan of Action. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996)

  1. Social progress and economic prosperity can be sustained only if our people live in a healthy environment and our ecosystems and natural resources are managed carefully and responsibly. To advance and implement the commitments made at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, and the 1994 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Barbados, we will create cooperative partnerships to strengthen our capacity to prevent and control pollution, to protect ecosystems and use our biological resources on a sustainable basis, and to encourage clean, efficient and sustainable energy production and use. To benefit future generations through environmental conservation, including the rational use of our ecosystems, natural resources and biological heritage, we will continue to pursue technological, financial and other forms of cooperation (Declaration of Principles Miami, 1994).

  1. We will advance our social well-being and economic prosperity in ways that are fully cognizant of our impact on the environment. We agree to support the Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development, which seeks to strengthen those democracies by promoting regional economic and social prosperity and sound environmental management. In this context, we support the convening of other regional meetings on sustainable development (Declaration of Principles Miami, 1994).

  • 21.6 Seek to ratify and begin implementation of the provisions of the Framework Convention on Climate Change which entered into force on March 21, 1994. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 21.8 Call on the multilateral financial institutions and other public and private financial institutions to finance regional and national programs in support of this action plan, such as training and exchange programs as well as technology cooperation, in accordance with the needs and conditions of receiving countries. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 21.9 Assist with coordination and technical cooperation between countries, using existing regional organizations, including project identification and implementation, training programs, and personnel and information exchanges to increase capacity. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 21.10 Promote the identification and implementation of private sector projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.1 Our Hemisphere contains over half the world's biodiversity. To sustain the Hemisphere's social and economic development, we must intensify efforts to understand, assess, and sustainably use this living resource base. We must act now to increase the technical and management capacity and public awareness of national and international efforts in this area. Agenda 2l, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and other related international instruments recognize these needs and call for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.2 Seek to ensure that strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are integrated into relevant economic development activities including forestry, agriculture, and coastal zone management, taking into account the social dimension and impact of these activities. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.3 Develop and implement the policies, techniques, and programs to assess, conserve, and sustainably use terrestrial, marine, and coastal biodiversity resources. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.4 Seek to ratify the Convention on Biological Diversity and pursue opportunities for collaboration under it, and, as appropriate, other international and regional environmental instruments. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.5 Support democratic governmental mechanisms to engage public participation, particularly including members of indigenous communities and other affected groups, in the development of policy involving conservation and sustainable use of natural environments. The forms of this participation should be defined by each individual country (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.6 Develop national plans and programs to establish and strengthen the management of parks and reserves, seeking links to economic, social, and ecological benefits for local people.(Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.7 Build capacity for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, through programs on management of parks and protected areas, forests and wetlands management, the Small Islands Developing States Action Plan, the Coral Reef Initiative, CITES support projects, and the Caribbean Regional Marine Pollution Action Plan, among others. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.8 Launch a "Decade of Discovery" to promote hemispheric technical and scientific cooperation and to facilitate the exchange of information relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.9 Increase support of training and education initiatives addressing sustainable use of biodiversity resources and foster activities by universities, non-governmental actors and organizations and the private sector to assist in the training of managers and to empower local communities. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.10 Call on multilateral financial institutions, including the IDB and the Global Environment Facility, to support eligible regional and national projects. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 22.11 Discuss progress on implementation of national and international activities described above at the 1996 Summit Conference on Sustainable Development in Bolivia, and at subsequent annual sustainable development ministerial (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.1 As recognized in Agenda 21, sound environmental management is an essential element of sustainable development. Cooperative efforts are needed to develop or improve, in accordance with national legislation and relevant international instruments: (1) frameworks for environment protection; and (2) mechanisms for implementing and enforcing environmental regulations. To achieve this goal, a new partnership will promote cooperative activities for developing environmental policies, laws, and institutions; increasing technical capacity; promoting public awareness and public participation; continuing to pursue technological, financial and other forms of cooperation; and facilitating information exchange, including on environmentally sound technologies. The activities of the partnership will build on and advance the implementation of international agreements and principles including those agreed to at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and the 1994 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, in areas identified as priorities by countries of the Hemisphere. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.2 Strengthen and build technical and institutional capacity to address environmental priorities such as pesticides, lead contamination, pollution prevention, risk reduction, waste and sanitation issues, improved water and air quality, access to safe drinking water, urban environmental problems, and to promote public participation and awareness. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.3 Develop and implement national action plans to phase out lead in gasoline. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.4 Strengthen national environmental protection frameworks and mechanisms for implementation and enforcement, and include sustainability criteria and objectives in national and other development strategies. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.5 Undertake national consultations to identify priorities for possible international collaboration. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.6 Support democratic governmental mechanisms to engage public participation, particularly from members of indigenous and other affected communities, in the consideration of policies regarding the environmental impact of development projects and the design and enforcement of environmental laws. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.7 Convene a meeting of technical experts, designated by each interested country, to develop a framework for cooperative partnership, building on existing institutions and networks to identify priority projects. These projects will initially focus on (1) the health and environmental problems associated with the misuse of pesticides, and (2) the impacts of lead contamination from gasoline and other sources. Subsequent activities could address waste, air, water quality, marine pollution from ships and other sources, and problems associated with urbanization. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.8 Promote the participation of organizations, such as the IDB, MIF, the World Bank, PAHO, the OAS, and non-governmental actors and organizations, as appropriate, to finance, develop and implement priority projects (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.9 Develop environmental policies and laws with the goal of ensuring that economic integration of the region occurs in an environmentally sustainable manner. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.10 Establish mechanisms for cooperation among government agencies, including in the legal and enforcement areas, to facilitate environmental information exchange, technology cooperation and capacity-building. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 23.11 Develop compatible environmental laws and regulations, at high levels of environmental protection, and promote the implementation of international environmental agreements.
    Discuss progress on implementation of international and national activities described above at the 1996 Summit Conference on Sustainable Development in Bolivia and at subsequent annual sustainable development ministerials. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

 

 

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