Organization of American States Summits of the Americas
Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates


  1. Leverage and develop inclusive digital tools in providing immediate response to climate events, disasters, and other emergencies, while strengthening resilience and decision-making based on empirical evidence. (Regional Agenda for Digital Transformation, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Address, with solidarity and equity, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, in all its stages, through the aforementioned Action Plan, in accordance with national contexts, needs, and priorities with the aim of assessing and strengthening the capacity and resilience of health systems and health value chains at the national and regional levels, placing individuals at the core of health and resilience policies, the integration of the delivery of health services, including physical and mental health services, accounting for the amplified impact on and unique needs of members of groups that have been historically marginalized, discriminated against, and/or in vulnerable situations, as well as all women and girls, taking into account their diverse conditions and situations, in a manner consistent with national legislation and international law, promoting the implementation of universal health coverage for all, without discrimination, to further the wellbeing of current and future generations. (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Address the wider economic, social, and environmental dimensions of resilience, including challenges resulting from COVID-19 and constraints to sustainable post-pandemic recovery, including limited fiscal space; unsustainable debt-burdens, where applicable; lack of access to financing; challenges to food and nutrition security; and limited capacity to mitigate and adapt to the challenges of the climate crisis. (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Develop an evidence-based Action Plan that takes into account the sociocultural, economic, and structural challenges facing the Americas region and includes, among others, identifying measures for national and international coordination and cooperation, taking into account the global commitments assumed by the states with respect to health and resilience, with a view to:

    • d. Strengthening regional and global health security and public health emergency preparedness for the future in keeping with previously established commitments, and increase health research and development funding, promoting regional actions to build and strengthen national and regional development and sustainable production capacities for raw materials, pharmaceuticals, and medicines, including safe and effective vaccines, medical supplies, and other essential health technologies; improving affordability and access; and responding to regional health needs, as appropriate, particularly during health emergencies; (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. The responsible authorities commit to evaluate gaps and develop an evidence-based action plan, rooted, inter alia, in a One Health approach to prevent, rapidly detect, and respond to infectious disease outbreaks, especially those resulting from threats to health between human beings, animals, plants and the environment and vector-borne transmission, and recognizing the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to human, animal, plant and environmental health, food safety, and global food security, encourage the integration of measures to improve awareness and understanding of AMR through communication, education, and training and to strengthen the evidence and knowledge base through surveillance and research. (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. To accelerate measures on climate change adaptation, taking into account different national circumstances, we intend to:

    • d. Redouble efforts to incorporate climate risks in plans, policies, operations, and sectoral budgets in order to generate resilience in strategic sectors and reduce vulnerability to climate change;

    • f. Enhance and promote delivery of climate information services, decision-making support tools, and early warning systems to improve understanding and response to climate impacts and minimize loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change across sectors and different scales. (Our Sustainable Green Future, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. To strengthen and integrate regional cooperation networks to assist governments and for the building of resilience by means of using appropriate methodologies to:

    • a. Assess risk to mitigate and reduce the destructive impacts of disasters caused by earthquakes, droughts, hurricanes, storms, floods, and sea-level rise, among others;

    • b. Assess the efficacy of adaptation measures;

    • c. Monitor in real time emergency disaster preparedness.(Our Sustainable Green Future, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Encourage multilateral development banks and other key regional financing entities, including the World Bank, the IDB, the CDB, CAF, and CABEI, to consider identifying, developing, and advancing specific and distinct efforts to improve the mobilization of climate financing to increase the implementation of all forms of renewable energy, and reduce climate vulnerability in countries of the Americas, and to promote reporting on the implementation of these initiatives by the Joint Summit Working Group by the X Summit of the Americas.(Accelerating the Clean, Sustainable, Renewable, and Just  Energy Transition, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Increase efforts to ensure inclusion and diversity in all aspects of governance, through the following actions:

    • b. Ensuring that pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response are inclusive processes, including but not limited to the equitable and fair distribution of the provision of care, physical safety, equal digital access, and access to decent employment and wage equity and other economic opportunities; (Inter-American Action Plan on Democratic Governance, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).


  1. Fostering transparency in the management of infrastructure and public resources allocated to ensure resilience to disaster, including the aforementioned infrastructure platform, in order to improve the response to emergencies and prevention, mitigation, recovery and reconstruction projects, and, to that end, promoting coordination through the Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Americas. (Lima Commitment. Peru, 2018)

  1. To seek to ensure that land planning and zoning processes carried out at the national and subnational levels take into account plans for environmental risk and natural disaster prevention, mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. In addition, through investments and policies, to promote urban development based on sustainable cities. In this regard, we underscore the importance of the Third UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (HABITAT III), which is to be held in Quito, Ecuador, in 2016. (Environment, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To reaffirm that disaster risk management is a priority within our national public policies and development strategies. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To prioritize the allocation of resources and the design of financial protection strategies, as appropriate, aimed at mitigating the social, economic, and environmental impact of disasters, with support from, inter alia, subregional, regional, and international financial institutions. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To strengthen our institutional platforms for disaster risk management, in collaboration with subregional, regional, and international mechanisms, through strategies of mutual assistance and partnership, in order to facilitate joint research, the exchange of knowledge, information, best practices, lessons learned in this area, and technology transfer under mutually agreed terms. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To strengthen regional and subregional instruments as well as existing initiatives in the area of disaster risk reduction and management and humanitarian assistance as well as coordination and cooperation mechanisms to generate synergies, underscoring the importance of coordination. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To work with subregional, regional, and international financial institutions with the aim to strengthen financing mechanisms for adaptation to climate change, mitigation, recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction, with a view to reducing and managing disaster risk and strengthening the resilience of communities and nations that are vulnerable to or affected by disasters. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To designate, where needed, and support, where already in existence, national and institutional focal points to promote more-efficient coordination among agencies of the inter-American system, international and regional organizations and entities, and subregional mechanisms, and to promote the use of on-line tools in this context, in order to bring a more rapid and effective response to disasters and catastrophes. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. We commit to improving regional cooperation and strengthening our national technical and institutional capacity for disaster reduction, prevention, preparedness and response, rehabilitation, resilience, risk reduction, impact mitigation, and evaluation. We will strengthen our monitoring, surveillance, communications and early warning systems and will encourage the sharing of information and research on disasters. In this regard, we recognise the importance of our active participation in the Pan American Institute of Geography and History, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as tools to increase access to information and facilitate coordinated action, as well as in the regional meetings on international mechanisms for humanitarian assistance and the Inter-American Network for Disaster Mitigation, as appropriate (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We will encourage the strengthening of domestic planning and zoning measures and building codes, as appropriate, in order to reduce risks, mitigate impact and enhance the resilience of future residential, commercial and industrial developments. We will consider measures, where feasible, to discourage developments in areas where risks cannot be reduced or impacts mitigated and to facilitate the protection or relocation of any areas of human settlement and sections of essential industrial and transport infrastructure that might be at risk. We will also promote education and training with the aim of increasing public awareness of natural disaster preparedness and of national plans for prevention, mitigation and post-disaster recovery (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We instruct the relevant Ministers or pertinent high level authorities, in collaboration with the specialised national, regional and international disaster organisations, and in the context of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and the Hyogo Declaration and Framework for Action 2005-2015, to strengthen cooperation within the Americas in the areas of disaster risk reduction and management (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009)

  1. We note with concern the increased intensity of natural and man-made disasters and their devastating impact on human lives, infrastructure, and economies in the Hemisphere. We call for action at the national, regional, and international levels to strengthen disaster management programs, including through increased capacity for disaster preparedness, development of early warning systems, risk mitigation and post-disaster recovery, and reconstruction and technical and financial assistance as appropriate, particularly for disaster-prone countries, to reduce the impact of disasters. We also support efforts under way to explore private and public sector involvement in comprehensive approaches to catastrophic risk insurance (Declaration of Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To substantially improve the capacity at the national, regional, and hemispheric levels for risk mitigation; to implement cost-effective and robust early warning systems, and to enhance disaster recovery and reconstruction capabilities in collaboration with relevant international and regional institutions. To explore with relevant international and regional institutions the coordinated development of effective public-private catastrophic risk insurance systems. (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. We commit to increase cooperation and strengthen the institutions responsible for coordinating and implementing measures to reduce the impact of natural disasters on people and their effect on national development plans, with emphasis on prevention, mitigation, emergency measures, and risk management at all levels (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We commit to strengthening hemispheric cooperation and national capacities to develop a more integrated approach to the management of natural disasters. We will continue to implement policies that enhance our ability to prevent, mitigate and respond to the consequences of natural disasters. We agree to study measures to facilitate timely access to financial resources to address emergency needs (Declaration of Québec, 2001).

  1. Recognizing the need to develop, implement and sustain shared comprehensive disaster management strategies and programs to reduce the vulnerability of our populations and economies to natural and man made disasters and to maintain or quickly restore minimum levels of consumption, income and production at the household and community levels in the aftermath of disasters, including irregular population settlements; acknowledging in this regard the need to expand the community of stakeholders at the regional, national and local levels engaged in the formulation of early warning systems, the management of risk and response operations in the event of disasters and integrated sustainable development strategies:(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Develop the capacity to forecast, prepare for and mitigate the potential impacts of natural and man made hazards ; promote vulnerability reduction; adopt and enforce better building codes and standards; ensure appropriate land use practices ; inventory and evaluate the vulnerability of critical facilities and infrastructure ; estimate climate change variability and sea level rise and assess their possible impacts; and in pursuit of the above, create the requisite legal framework and establish the cooperative mechanisms to access and share advances in science and technology and their application in the early warning, preparedness for and mitigation of these hazards;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the exchange of information on the vulnerability of infrastructure exposed to disasters as well as the early warning capacity, particularly in the border areas of the countries of the Americas, in order to design specific prevention measures in the fields of engineering and legislation with the aim of reducing the socio-economic impact of natural disasters;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Establish or strengthen, where appropriate, partnerships with all relevant actors, including the private sector, technical professional associations, regional institutions, civil society, educational and research institutions and other multilateral coordinating agencies such as the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), in the development and implementation of disaster management policies and programs at the national and community levels, and promote greater awareness and effective integration of these policies and programs among national policy makers, local authorities, communities and media, and promote the insurance and reinsurance of the social and economic infrastructure as well as the decentralization of information and decision-making;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the exchange of knowledge and experiences regarding the combat against inappropriate practices in the exploitation of natural resources and unsustainable patterns of consumption, including the problems of waste management, which increase the vulnerability of the people to natural disasters; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote the development of telecommunications for humanitarian assistance; actively encourage greater use and interoperability of telecommunications and other technologies and information systems that allow the observation and monitoring of different natural phenomena; use early warning systems such as remote sensing imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based data necessary to address and prevent emergencies; promote the compatibility of these systems in the planning and response to emergency operations among governments, specialized agencies, relevant international organizations, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and, in this spirit, consider signing and ratifying, ratifying, or acceding to, as soon as possible and as the case may be, the Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resources for Disaster Mitigation and Relief Operations;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Establish information networks with the involvement of the Inter American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction (IACNDR) and other relevant regional and international organizations to exchange scientific and technological knowledge and experiences; encourage further regional and subregional action to reduce risks and improve response to natural disasters; promote joint research and development technologies and contribute to strengthen coordination of national prevention and response agencies in natural disasters; to achieve this, draw on the work of ECLAC on the improvement, up dating and implementation of its damage assessment methodology and continue to promote natural disaster mitigation and risk reduction awareness and preparedness;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Consider the creation of a hemispheric system for prevention and mitigation of disasters that would include, among others, a specialized database containing the best information available on the characteristics, experiences, strengths and weaknesses of national and regional agencies responsible for disaster prevention and mitigation and provide a new framework for technical cooperation and research aimed at creating a hemispheric culture of prevention and solidarity ; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Adopt and support, as appropriate, initiatives aimed at promoting capacity building at all levels, such as the transfer and development of technology for prevention – risk reduction, awareness, preparedness, mitigation – and response to natural and other disasters, as well as for the rehabilitation of affected areas ;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote mechanisms that incorporate risk management and risk reduction methods in public and private development investments ;( Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Convene within a year a hemispheric meeting on disaster preparedness and mitigation with the support of the IACNDR and the participation of a wide range of government entities, regional and MDBs, private entities, NGOs and the research, scientific and technical communities, to discuss and develop cooperative efforts to facilitate implementation of Summit mandates on disaster management;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Request the IDB to undertake a feasibility study in partnership with the OAS, the World Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) and other relevant inter American organizations, as well as the private sector, including insurance companies, on measures to reduce and/or pool risk in a manner that results in reduced premiums on catastrophic insurance, and mechanisms to facilitate contingent re construction financing and the immediate release of funds to resolve urgent needs of the affected country; this study would examine the relationship between re insurance and national and community disaster management capacities, as well as trends toward dis investment and job losses in those economic sectors requiring costly catastrophic insurance coverage and the role such measures might play in this regard; share with the private sector experiences in the development and application of risk management tools such as risk transfer instruments, vulnerability assessment methodologies and risk reduction incentives for the private sector;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Encourage the development of cooperative programs to deal with natural disasters and humanitarian search and rescue operations. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Apply science and technology to mitigate the damages caused by the effects of "El Niño" and other natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods, and their impact on the economy and ecosystems, based on improved forecasting, prevention and response capacity, improved research and training methods to deal with natural hazards, and the application of science and technology to address the effects of climate variability on health, agriculture and water. In this context, cooperative research and exchange of information about "El Niño" and other natural hazards will be emphasized. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  • 20.7 Preparedness to send specialized volunteers, on short notice and at the request of the United Nations, to cope with situations generated by or to prevent the effects of natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies.(Plan of Action Miami, 1994).



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