Organization of American States Summits of the Americas
Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates

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HEALTH: Child Health

  1. Address, with solidarity and equity, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, in all its stages, through the aforementioned Action Plan, in accordance with national contexts, needs, and priorities with the aim of assessing and strengthening the capacity and resilience of health systems and health value chains at the national and regional levels, placing individuals at the core of health and resilience policies, the integration of the delivery of health services, including physical and mental health services, accounting for the amplified impact on and unique needs of members of groups that have been historically marginalized, discriminated against, and/or in vulnerable situations, as well as all women and girls, taking into account their diverse conditions and situations, in a manner consistent with national legislation and international law, promoting the implementation of universal health coverage for all, without discrimination, to further the wellbeing of current and future generations. (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Develop an evidence-based Action Plan that takes into account the sociocultural, economic, and structural challenges facing the Americas region and includes, among others, identifying measures for national and international coordination and cooperation, taking into account the global commitments assumed by the states with respect to health and resilience, with a view to:

    • i. Redoubling efforts to accelerate achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including target 3.4 – to reduce by one-third premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and wellbeing by 2030 – noting with concern that the leading cause of premature mortality in the Region of the Americas is NCDs, which disproportionately affect countries in the region, including small-island and low-lying coastal developing states in the Caribbean sub-region, accounting for the highest probability of death between the ages of 30 and 70 from any of the four major NCDs; (Action Plan on Health and Resilience in the Americas, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. To accelerate efforts to improve maternal and child health, in particular reducing maternal and child mortality, including neonatal mortality, and continue working to ensure effective access by all women to comprehensive healthcare, in particular during pregnancy, partum and post-partum periods. To request the collaboration of PAHO in continuing to support the countries in this endeavor. We commit to supporting the renewal of the United Nations Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. (Health, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. While the region has made significant progress in reducing both maternal mortality and mortality in infants and children under 5 years, neonatal mortality has not decreased at the same rate. We call on the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) to continue to assist countries in addressing this problem through the implementation of the Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for Neonatal Health within the Continuum of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Care. We recognise the importance of cooperation in sharing experiences within the framework of the global Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We recognise that nutrition is important in combating poverty, hunger and chronic malnutrition for children, especially those under age five, and vulnerable groups. We consider it a high priority to address the issue of nutrition through the joint efforts of the public and private sectors, civil society and communities. We call upon international organisations where appropriate to continue to support national efforts to confront malnutrition and promote healthy diets. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We are committed to meeting the Millennium Declaration objective of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 through, inter alia, identification and implementation of strategies to scale up towards the goal of universal access to comprehensive prevention programmes, treatment, care and support. We will promote scientific research and social awareness geared towards producing safe and high quality medicines and supplies with the aim of increasing access to treatment. We will implement the Regional HIV/STI Plan for the Health Sector 2006-2015, in coordination with PAHO, UNAIDS and other relevant institutions. We commit to strengthening public policies aimed at reducing the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to less than 5% by 2015. We reiterate our commitment to participating in and strengthening the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, including through resource mobilisation. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. Recognizing - further to the commitments made at the Miami and Santiago Summits and in accordance with agreed-upon international development goals in the areas of maternal, infant, child and reproductive health - that good physical and mental health is essential for a productive and fulfilling life, and that equitable access to quality health services is a critical element in the development of democratic societies, and for the stability and prosperity of nations; that the enjoyment of the highest standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition, as set forth in the Constitution of the World Health Organization; that gender equality and concern for indigenous peoples, children, the elderly and under-served groups must be of paramount concern in the development of health policy; that health outcomes are affected by physical, social, economic and political factors and that the technical cooperation of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and other relevant international organizations should continue to support health actions in the Hemisphere, in a manner consistent with the Shared Agenda for Health in the Americas signed by PAHO, the IDB, and the World Bank: (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Intensify efforts and share and promote best practices to:

    • reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality;
    • provide quality reproductive health care and services for women, men and adolescents; and
    • carry out commitments made at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development and its five-year follow-up in New York; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote healthy childhood development through: prenatal care, expanded immunization programs, control of respiratory and diarrheal diseases by conducting programs such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, health education, physical fitness, access to safe and nutritious foods, and the promotion of breast feeding; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Give the highest priority to reducing infant malnutrition, concentrating efforts on health, nutrition and education programs for the nutrition of infants, particularly those less than three, as those are the years of greatest vulnerability. To that end, emphasis shall be given to adequate nutrition and the correction of specific nutritional deficiencies, specifically with vitamin and mineral supplements combined with greater use of vaccinations and immunizations and monitoring during the growth of the child. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Give high priority to the nutritional and caloric needs of women before and during pregnancy and while they are breast-feeding. Governments therefore will promote breast-feeding as an important source of nutrition for babies. The nutritional needs of other high risk groups such as the elderly and the disabled will also be addressed. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  • Initiative 1. Strengthen programs to increase access to safe drinking water, control and improve air quality, and upgrade health conditions with a view to reducing mortality and morbidity among children and mothers, and establish environmental quality standards with the participation of civil society. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 3. Promote mechanisms of hemispheric cooperation for the exchange of information and experiences on national policies and measures to reduce the effects of environmental problems on child health. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • 17.1 Despite impressive gains in the Hemisphere, limitations on health services access and quality have resulted in persistently high child and maternal mortality, particularly among the rural poor and indigenous groups. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 17.2 Endorse the maternal and child health objectives of the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1994 Nariño Accord and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, and reaffirm their commitment to reduce child mortality by one-third and maternal mortality by one-half from 1990 levels by the year 2000. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 17.3 Endorse a basic package of clinical, preventive and public health services consistent with World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and World Bank recommendations and with the Program of Action agreed to at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The package will address child, maternal and reproductive health interventions, including prenatal, delivery and postnatal care, family planning information and services, and HIV/AIDS prevention, as well as immunizations and programs combating the other major causes of infant mortality. The plans and programs will be developed according to a mechanism to be decided upon by each country. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 17.4 Develop or update country action plans or programs for reforms to achieve child, maternal and reproductive health goals and ensure universal, non-discriminatory access to basic services, including health education and preventive health care programs. The plans and programs will be developed according to a mechanism to be decided upon by each country. Reforms would encompass essential community-based services for the poor, the disabled, and indigenous groups; stronger public health infrastructure; alternative means of financing, managing and providing services; quality assurance; and greater use of non-governmental actors and organizations. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).



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