Organization of American States Summits of the Americas
Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates

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  1. Support free and fair elections with full respect for state sovereignty, through the following measures, in accordance with domestic law:

    • f. Eliminate measures that create direct or indirect limitations in accessing the electoral process for members of specific groups, particularly opposition political parties and groups in vulnerable situations and/or historically discriminated against; (Inter-American Action Plan on Democratic Governance, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Deepen the relationship between inclusive, democratic governance and sustainable development by:

    • c. Promoting the development of policies and programs to expand opportunities for economic and social empowerment and advancement for all peoples of the Hemisphere;

    • d. Promoting policies and programs that address the structural causes of poverty and inequality and foster strengthened cooperation and the exchange of experiences and best practices in that regard; (Inter-American Action Plan on Democratic Governance, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Generate initiatives that arise from the priorities of indigenous peoples, persons of African descent, women and girls and other historically marginalized groups, as well as groups in vulnerable situations, to promote development for all persons, within the framework of intercultural dialogue. (Inter-American Action Plan on Democratic Governance, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Collect and report municipal and/or local level demographic data through qualitative and quantitative mechanisms to inform and improve equitable access to community development planning processes and public resources and services, particularly among populations at risk and in vulnerable situations and that are underserved. (Inter-American Action Plan on Democratic Governance, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Continue to promote the use and leverage of information and communication technologies, with the digitalization of public service delivery to strengthen transparency, improve efficiency and accountability, as well as improve the quality of life of citizens, and promote democracy and citizen participation as protagonists of public management, respecting the sovereignty and integrity of each State. (Regional Agenda for Digital Transformation, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. To decrease the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere from agricultural, forestry, mining, and other land-use sectors, we commit to:

    • h. Promote economic recovery, in a socially inclusive manner, fostering low greenhouse gas emitting economies, with a view to conserving, managing, and ensuring sustainable use of natural resources with key actors implementing joint synergies among countries in the region. (Our Sustainable Green Future, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Work with the private sector, multilateral development banks, and multilateral climate funds, as appropriate, to identify, facilitate access to, and finance quality energy efficiency and clean and sustainable energy infrastructure plans and projects, which use innovative technologies and follow international best practices for environmental and procurement standards that promote respect for human rights and reach underserved communities and public entities, considering the level of development and the mechanisms that best adapt to the reality of each country. (Accelerating the Clean, Sustainable, Renewable, and Just Energy Transition, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).


  1. Developing a culture of citizen participation and prevention of corruption with a view to strengthening democratic and civic values from early childhood and throughout life, by implementing teaching and learning programs at all levels of education, as well as ongoing education programs. (Lima Commitment. Peru, 2018)

  1. Recognizing the positive contributions of indigenous peoples and their traditional values and principles, and the contributions of Afrodescendent communities to improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of public administration and raising awareness in favor of the fight against corruption. (Lima Commitment. Peru, 2018)

  1. Including different vulnerable groups in defining measures to strengthen governance and combat corruption, recognizing the serious impact it has on these populations. (Lima Commitment. Peru, 2018)


  1. To encourage the joint efforts of the public and private sectors, civil society, and other social stakeholders to strengthen strategies for food and nutrition, specifically child nutrition, as an integral element of health in fighting poverty, hunger, and inequality. (Health, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To strengthen holistic efforts with special attention to socio-economic factors to prevent juvenile delinquency through actions and mechanisms that foster livelihood, sociability, self-esteem, and well-being among young people. (Security, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To continue promoting and supporting participation by civil society and social actors in dialogue with the states as an ongoing mechanism for participation and consultation in order to contribute to the formulation and implementation of public policies and programs aimed at achieving prosperity with equity and social inclusion. (Citizen Participation, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To strengthen cultural ties in the Americas and promote cooperation for the conservation and protection of the region's tangible and intangible cultural heritage, while acknowledging the importance of culture and creative and cultural industries in socio-economic development, social inclusion, the diversification of economies, and job creation. (Citizen Participation, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To promote open government and access to information as key tools for achieving greater transparency, better public administration, citizen participation and social inclusion, and to support initiatives currently under way in this regard. (Democratic Governance, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. To reaffirm that the promotion and further development of physical infrastructure projects at the national, subregional, and regional levels are priorities for the public policies and development strategies of our countries, as appropriate, which contribute to sustainable development, social inclusion, and increased trade. (Integration of Physical Infrastructure in the Americas, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To promote and encourage comprehensive, timely, and quality public policies on:

    1. Early childhood care, education, and development.
    2. Protecting children from economic exploitation and from any tasks that may interfere with their education and integral development, according to the principle of the effective abolition of child labor, which is contained in the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998); as well as preventing and eradicating the worst forms of child labor according to Convention 182 of the ILO (1999)
    3. Raising awareness about the adverse effects of adolescent pregnancies on the integral development of the adolescent and their offspring, as well as fostering their health and well-being.(Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To combat poverty, extreme poverty, hunger, inequality, inequity, and social exclusion through public policies that promote decent, dignified, and productive work; sustained economic growth; income growth; and access to comprehensive and quality education, health care, and housing, in order to achieve sustainable development with social justice in the Americas. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To ensure equal access to primary and secondary education for all, to promote improvement in the quality of education at all levels, increased access to tertiary, technical, and vocational education, as soon as possible, with particular attention to vulnerable groups and those with special education needs, using, inter alia, the modality of distance learning, and to promote strengthening of literacy programs. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To foster greater international exchange of students, in order to provide them with the greatest possible learning opportunities. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To reaffirm our commitment to advance towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and promote the financing of projects and programs to disseminate best practices in the communities that are most behind. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To deepen inter-American cooperation in the area of development and social protection with a view to strengthening human and institutional capacity-building efforts, and generating a skilled workforce, with a gender perspective and giving attention to vulnerable groups. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To strengthen public-private partnerships, and partnerships with all stakeholders, to promote the reduction of poverty and inequality as well as the economic and social development of the communities in which they operate. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To promote greater investment in, and access to, research, technological innovation, and capacity-building in order to strengthen and ensure a sustainable, comprehensive, inclusive, and competitive agro-food sector that would contribute to food security and the reduction of poverty and inequity, particularly in marginalized rural and urban areas. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To reaffirm our support for the objectives set out in the Declaration of the Decade of the Americas for the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities (2006-2016) and its Plan of Action, by promoting equal opportunity for, and nondiscrimination of, persons with disabilities through their participation in our countries’ social, political, economic, and cultural development processes, in order to ensure their well-being and the full enjoyment and exercise of all their human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To advance in strengthening the protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of older persons through promotion of public policies, programs, and services, thus safeguarding their dignity, their physical, mental and social well-being, and their quality of life, bearing in mind efforts underway at the inter-American level to draft a legally binding instrument for the protection of the rights of older persons and consideration of the issue at the international level. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To develop comprehensive public policies, as appropriate, to strengthen social inclusion of migrants in a bid to overcome marginalization, victimization, and poverty and, regardless of their immigration status, protect their human rights. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To promote the gradual formalization of the informal economy, recognizing its heterogeneous and multidimensional nature, through policies such as registration and information systems to facilitate formalization and access to credit, social protection mechanisms, improvement of occupational health and safety, strengthening of labor inspection, and effective enforcement of labor laws.* (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).
    *In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the definition of “informal economy” is broad enough to encompass certain activities that are illegal but which, nevertheless, have an impact on the local economy. Taking into account their domestic circumstance, St. Vincent and the Grenadines joins consensus on this paragraph with the understanding that “informal economy” refers wholly and solely to activities that are legally sanctioned.

  1. To develop and strengthen, as appropriate, strategies and policies on youth employment, as well as to promote technical and vocational education and training opportunities in order to improve and increase the entry of young people into the labor market, the quality and stability of their jobs, as well as their social protection. (Poverty, Inequality, and Inequity, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To prioritize the allocation of resources and the design of financial protection strategies, as appropriate, aimed at mitigating the social, economic, and environmental impact of disasters, with support from, inter alia, subregional, regional, and international financial institutions. (Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. To promote the development, coordination, and implementation of strategies and projects, as appropriate, for expanding access to, and use of, ICTs with the support and participation of international organizations, the private sector, social actors, and communities, in order to achieve greater social inclusion and improve the quality of life of our peoples. (Access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies, Cartagena, 2012).

  1. We therefore renew our commitment to all the peoples of the Americas to improve the quality of their lives by strengthening inter-American cooperation and, with the support of the institutions of the United Nations, the inter-American system and other relevant regional institutions, to further complement our efforts to ensure greater opportunities for decent work; to improve nutrition and access to health, quality education and housing; to promote adequate and sustainable access to energy, food and water; and to manage our environment responsibly. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We affirm that the solutions to the challenges facing our peoples are closely inter-dependent with our efforts to promote sustainable development and social inclusion; build stronger democratic institutions; strengthen governance in our democracies; preserve the rule of law and ensure access to justice for all citizens; protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms; prevent and combat violence, crime, terrorism and corruption; fight the global drug problem and related crimes; and achieve broader civic participation of all citizens of the inter-American community (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We are aware that, notwithstanding the gains made since the Fourth Summit of the Americas, deep inequalities continue to exist in our countries and in our region. In response, we will continue to develop and implement social protection and inclusion policies and programmes that give priority to those living in conditions of poverty and vulnerability in our societies, and we will continue to promote access to education, health, nutrition, energy, basic social services and to opportunities for dignified and decent work. At the same time, we will stimulate income growth and better income distribution, increase productivity, and protect workers’ rights and the environment (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. To strengthen our efforts to reduce social disparities and inequality and to halve extreme poverty by the year 2015, we commit to exchange information on policies, experiences, programmes and best practices. We therefore support the establishment of an Inter-American Social Protection Network in order to facilitate this exchange (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We instruct our Ministers, in particular those responsible for finance, planning and social development, to initiate or strengthen the review of national social protection, inclusion and poverty eradication programmes, if deemed necessary, in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness, reduce duplication, identify gaps at the national level and optimise the use of resources. We also instruct the Ministers to share the experiences and best practices that emanate from these reviews at the Second Meeting of Ministers and high level authorities of Social Development scheduled to take place in Colombia in 2010, with a view to identifying opportunities for increased multilateral cooperation in the area of social development. We call on the OAS, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and other relevant regional and sub-regional development and financial institutions to support these efforts within the scope of their mandates (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We reiterate our support for the objectives of the Social Charter of the Americas and its Plan of Action, which seek to offer all of our citizens more opportunities to benefit from sustainable development with equity and social inclusion. We encourage the OAS to conclude the drafting of these instruments and will endeavour to conclude negotiations and adopt these documents before the end of 2009 (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We also commit to continue exploring ways in which our governments can build, strengthen and maintain alliances with all sectors of society, especially the business, labour and academic sectors, in order to harness the expertise and resources that exist within these sectors, and to develop and implement effective, practical and sustainable strategies and cooperation to achieve our national and hemispheric development goals. Considering that the contribution of science, technology and innovation is crucial for attaining the objectives of this Declaration, strategic initiatives to better mobilise these resources of the region should be formulated. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. Taking into account the International Labor Organization (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998), and the commitment to promoting, strengthening, and defending democracy in the OAS Charter and the Inter-American Democratic Charter, we will promote social well-being, an equitable distribution of the benefits of economic growth, an increase in hemispheric standards of living, the elimination of hunger and the attainment of food security, the creation of new employment opportunities, and the promotion of entrepreneurship (Declaration of Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. Recognizing that the reduction of inequality and the elimination of poverty cannot be achieved solely through welfare-oriented social policies, we commit to undertaking comprehensive government policies that institutionalize the fight against poverty. We commit to consolidating more democratic societies with opportunities for all, and will promote greater access for our people to education, health care, labor markets, and credit (Declaration of Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To promote goals for the gradual registration of workers who are wage earners but not covered by social protection, especially domestic workers (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To provide, improve or widen, as appropriate, comprehensive social protection systems so that all workers have access to relevant social safety net mechanisms.(Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To promote tripartite and inclusive social dialogue and cooperation among social partners and governments and call on the ILO for support as needed.(Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To encourage the exchange of experience with regard to the role of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises and access to procurement programs, in the creation of productive jobs, development of competitive skills, reduction of the informal sector, and the fight against poverty (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To foster the development of comprehensive economic and social policies at the national level, principally aimed at employment growth; reduction of poverty, exclusion and inequality; personal skills development; and access to opportunities for integral development (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To identify and exchange, within the framework of the OAS, practices in the region regarding policies and programs to confront poverty (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To encourage the work now under way in the OAS, to conclude successfully the negotiation of the Social Charter of the Americas and its Plan of Action (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. To call upon the First Inter-American Meeting of Social Development Ministers to be held in El Salvador, in agreement with resolution AG/RES. 1984 (XXXIV-O/04) of the thirty-fourth period of regular sessions of the OAS General Assembly, to consider, among others, the progress as regards the commitments included in this Plan of Action that pertain to the scope of their competencies. (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. We will continue to implement public policies that stimulate greater domestic savings, meet the need for the creation of productive jobs, and contribute to greater social inclusion (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We recognize that overcoming poverty, hunger, and social inequality are major challenges facing many countries of the Hemisphere in the twenty-first century. We are convinced that coordinated and integrated economic and social policies are a prerequisite for success in combating inequality of opportunity and marginalization and such policies are fundamental pillars for constructing a more just society. We underscore that work, employment, and income are essential for an inclusive social policy (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We will foster policies that strengthen the social security systems in our countries. We will also implement, within our capacities and financial means, social safety nets, or other appropriate modalities, to address the needs of the most vulnerable segments of our societies. We encourage the countries of the Hemisphere that have not yet established these nets to explore the possibility of doing so as soon as possible (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We emphasize the role of the existing multilateral agencies in providing humanitarian assistance. We also take note of discussions and initiatives oriented on improving the effectiveness of providing humanitarian assistance and alleviating poverty, such as the proposal to create a voluntary International Humanitarian Fund. (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. Social justice and the reduction of poverty contribute to the stability, democracy, and security of our States and the region. We reiterate that among the principal causes of instability in the region are poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, which we must confront comprehensively and urgently (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. The progress made in economic and social development and in attaining a higher standard of equity through good governance will contribute to the advancement of stability in the Hemisphere and deepen the human dimension of security (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We have made progress in implementing the collective undertakings made at Miami in 1994 and continued at Santiago in 1998. We recognize the necessity to continue addressing weaknesses in our development processes and increasing human security. We are aware that there is still much to be achieved if the Summit of the Americas process is to be relevant to the daily lives of our people and contribute to their well-being (Declaration of Québec, 2001).

  1. Free and open economies, market access, sustained flows of investment, capital formation, financial stability, appropriate public policies, access to technology and human resources development and training are key to reducing poverty and inequalities, raising living standards and promoting sustainable development. We will work with all sectors of civil society and international organizations to ensure that economic activities contribute to the sustainable development of our societies (Declaration of Québec, 2001).

  1. Improve, as appropriate, social safety nets at the national and regional levels to stabilize individual and household income and consumption by such means as stabilization funds, micro credit schemes, crop insurance programs, job retraining and training in vocational, entrepreneurial and business skills, with the involvement of the MDBs and development agencies as well as non governmental and community-based organizations and to establish regional networks to share best practices and experiences;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote social cohesion, mutual respect and development by:

    • recognizing the contribution of physical education and fair, drug free sport; and

    • supporting initiatives which: preserve and enhance traditional and indigenous sport, strengthen the role of women in sport, and increase opportunities for children and youth, persons with disabilities and minorities to participate in and benefit from sport and other physical activities; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Overcoming poverty continues to be the greatest challenge confronted by our Hemisphere. We are conscious that the positive growth shown in the Americas in past years has yet to resolve the problems of inequity and social exclusion. We are determined to remove the barriers that deny the poor access to proper nutrition, social services, a healthy environment, credit, and legal title to their property. We will provide greater support to micro and small enterprises; promote core labor standards recognized by the International Labor Organization (ILO), and use new technologies to improve the health conditions of every family in the Americas, with the technical support of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), achieving greater levels of equity and sustainable development (Declaration of Santiago, 1998).

  1. We, the democratically elected Heads of State and Government of the Americas, recognizing the need to make a collective effort that complements the actions being developed and executed at the national level to improve the economic well-being and the quality of life of our peoples, mindful of our commitment to the continued implementation of the Miami Plan of Action, affirm our resolute determination to carry out this Plan of Action, which constitutes a body of concrete initiatives intended to promote the overall development of the countries of the Hemisphere and ensure access to and improve the quality of education, promote and strengthen democracy and the respect for human rights, deepen economic integration and free trade and eradicate poverty and discrimination. We have adopted this Plan of Action conscious that all the initiatives are inter-related and equally important to the attainment of our common endeavor. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Develop appropriate treatment, rehabilitation and reintegration programs with a view to alleviating the serious social effects, human suffering and other adverse effects associated with drug abuse; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Extreme poverty and discrimination continue to afflict the lives of many of our families and impede their potential contribution to our nations' progress. To move toward a prosperous future for all, we will facilitate the provision of legal title to urban and rural properties and redouble our efforts to increase access to credit and to provide technical support for microenterprises, and protect the basic rights of workers. We will remove all forms of discrimination against women, indigenous communities, disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities, and other vulnerable groups. We will seek to enhance the quality of life of all people of the Americas through efforts that ensure access to adequate health services, to improved health technologies, to clean water and proper nutrition. Taken together, these measures will facilitate the inclusion of all inhabitants, without exception, in the economic and democratic transformation of the Hemisphere (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. As a means to combat poverty and taking into account national differences, the Governments pledge to strengthen the development of micro, small and medium size enterprises by undertaking the following specific actions: (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. This Summit Conference on Sustainable Development is the cornerstone of a partnership for cooperation among the states of the Americas in their common pursuit of a higher quality of life for their peoples, founded on integrated and complementary economic, social, and environmental objectives.
    Taking the current experience of our countries and region as a point of departure, we hereby frame a plan of action that will commit the states to timely action and ensure the availability of the resources needed for that purpose (Declaración de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 36 Redouble efforts to meet the housing needs of the poorest and most vulnerable sectors, bearing in mind the need to provide adequate essential services and to improve the environment; and, to that end, request international and subregional financial institutions to lend the greatest possible degree of support to efforts to promote the construction of low-income housing and related infrastructure services.(Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 37 Foster the exchange of information and experiences to promote the use of environmentally sound technologies, including appropriate standards for building low-cost housing. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 38 Strengthen programs relating to urban settlements through partnerships between the public and private sectors for urban planning and development, taking account of environmental questions and the situation of landless and homeless persons. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 39 Promote international technical and financial cooperation, including horizontal cooperation, to carry out urban development and environmental sanitation programs. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 40 Develop legal, financial, and institutional frameworks which support local government involvement and facilitate private-sector participation in the financing and delivery of urban services and improved environmental management. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  • Initiative 44 Develop policies and programs to see that the poor and most vulnerable are affected as little as possible by environmental degradation and are able to share equitably in the benefits of environmental protection and, to this end, request the international and subregional financial institutions to support as strongly as possible the acquisition of environmentally sound technologies for their productive activities. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).

  1. It is politically intolerable and morally unacceptable that some segments of our populations are marginalized and do not share fully in the benefits of growth. With an aim of attaining greater social justice for all our people, we pledge to work individually and collectively to improve access to quality education and primary health care and to eradicate extreme poverty and illiteracy. The fruits of democratic stability and economic growth must be accessible to all, without discrimination by race, gender, national origin or religious affiliation (Declaration of Principles Miami, 1994).

  • 20.1 The "White Helmets Initiative" is based on the conviction that a concerted international effort of developing and developed countries can facilitate the eradication of poverty and strengthen the humanitarian rapid response capability of the international community to emergency humanitarian, social and developmental needs. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.2 The countries of the Americas could pioneer this initiative through the creation of national corps of volunteers that could respond to calls from other countries in the region. These national corps could eventually be put at the disposal of the United Nations. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.3 Establish, organize and finance a corps of volunteers to work at the national level and, at the same time, be at the disposal of other countries of the Hemisphere and, eventually, the United Nations system, on a stand-by basis, for prevention, relief, rehabilitation, technical, social and development cooperation, with the aim to reduce the effects of natural disasters, social and developmental needs and emergencies. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.4 Through the creation of a national corps of volunteers, be responsible for the following :( Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.5 Selection and training of its national volunteer corps; (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.6 Financing of its national corps of volunteers, encouraging the involvement of the private sector ; ( Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.8 Contribute to the formation of this corps and invite private enterprises, foundations and regional financial institutions to do so. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 20.9 Contribute to the development of an international roster of volunteers to be maintained in a master plan in the United Nations to be drawn upon to complement the activities of existing UN mechanisms. The IDB, OAS, and PAHO should be invited to participate and assist in developing this corps.(Plan of Action Miami, 1994).



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