Organization of American States Summits of the Americas
Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates

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SECURITY: Drug Problem

  1. Promote and strengthen international cooperation among States to effectively prevent, prosecute, investigate, and try cybercrimes, illicit use of data that belong to government, private institutions, and persons and other criminal activities furthered by the misuse of information and communication technologies, such as human trafficking, migrant smuggling, child sexual exploitation and other forms of sexual violence, and illicit drug and arms trafficking, as well as money laundering, inter alia, in a framework of respect for human rights and with a gender perspective. (Regional Agenda for Digital Transformation, IX Summit of the Americas, Los Angeles, 2022).

  1. Calling upon the Joint Summit Working Group (JSWG) to support the implementation and strengthening of national human rights-based programs to develop the capacity of the police, public prosecutors’ offices, the judiciary, and domestic oversight agencies to combat acts of corruption, including those related to drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, trafficking in firearms and other weapons and the smuggling of goods and wildlife. (Lima Commitment. Peru, 2018)

  1. To take note of the report “The Drug Problem in the Americas” of the OAS Secretary General and to recognize the progress and reaffirm the commitments made at the forty-third regular session of the OAS General Assembly “For a Comprehensive Policy against the World Drug Problem in the Americas”, and the forty-sixth special session of the OAS General Assembly “Reflections and Guidelines to Formulate and Follow up on Comprehensive Policies to Address the World Drug Problem in the Americas”. To that end, we decide to continue with the dialogue in preparation for the special session of the United Nations General Assembly on the global drug problem to be held in 2016. (Security, Initiatives VII Summit of the Americas, Panama City, 2015).

  1. We will continue to fight all forms of transnational organised crime, illicit trafficking in drugs, illicit trafficking in arms, ammunition and explosives, illicit trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, money laundering, corruption, terrorism, kidnapping, criminal gangs, and crimes associated with the use of technology, including cyber crime. We therefore reaffirm our will to implement the Commitment to Public Security in the Americas adopted by the First Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas in October 2008 in Mexico City, the commitments emanating from Meetings of Ministers of Justice or other Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas (REMJA), as well as the 2006 Hemispheric Plan of Action Against Transnational Organised Crime. We thus invite the international community and international financial organisations to continue making financial contributions and other appropriate forms of assistance, within the scope of their respective competencies, to facilitate the achievement of the objectives of public security in the Americas. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. We will increase our efforts to prevent and combat all aspects of the global drug problem and related crimes, with strengthened international cooperation and an integral and balanced approach based on the principle of common and shared responsibility, in accordance with the principles enshrined in the United Nations and OAS Charters, international law and our applicable legal frameworks. To this end, we will strengthen our national capacities and will continue to implement, as appropriate, the recommendations of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). We welcome the completion of its latest Evaluation Round, and we will continue strengthening the Mechanism so as to enable it to face the new challenges and needs of the countries of the Hemisphere. We also recognise the importance of sustainable alternative development programmes and, where appropriate, of preventive alternative development in tackling the global drug problem. (Declaration of Port of Spain, 2009).

  1. To continue to strengthen regional cooperation and the mobilization of resources to advance in the fight against the production, trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs and psychotropic substances, calling upon the countries of the hemisphere, in cooperation with the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), to: develop, implement, and evaluate substance abuse prevention programs, in particular for children and young people, such as “Life Skills”, among others; expand the “Program to Estimate the Human, Social, and Economic Cost of Drugs in the Americas”; and promote support for the integral and sustainable development strategies carried out by the countries affected by cultivation and production of illicit drugs. (Plan of Action Mar del Plata, 2005).

  1. We will take all necessary steps to prevent and counter terrorism and its financing in full compliance with our obligations under international law, including international human rights, refugee, and humanitarian law. Similarly, we commit to fight all forms of transnational crime, including illicit trafficking in drugs, arms, and persons, particularly when they generate funds used in support of terrorist organizations. We also commit to adhere to global anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing standards. (Declaration of Nuevo León, 2004).

  1. We reiterate our commitment to combat new, multi-dimensional threats to the security of our societies. Foremost amongst these threats are the global drug problem and related crimes, the illicit traffic in and criminal use of firearms, the growing danger posed by organized crime and the general problem of violence in our societies. Acknowledging that corruption undermines core democratic values, challenges political stability and economic growth and thus threatens vital interests in our Hemisphere, we pledge to reinvigorate our fight against corruption. We also recognize the need to improve the conditions for human security in the Hemisphere (Declaration of Québec, 2001).

  1. Recognizing the extreme nature of the drug problem in the region, renewing their unwavering commitment to fight it in all its manifestations from an integral perspective, in accordance with the principle of shared responsibility, through the coordination of national efforts and in a spirit of cooperation and mutual respect as established in the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy, and also recognizing the work accomplished by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) and the Governmental Experts Group appointed to undertake the first round of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Note with satisfaction the creation and implementation of the MEM, and reiterate their commitment to make this instrument, unique in the world, a central pillar of assistance toward effective hemispheric cooperation in the struggle against all the component elements of the global drug problem; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Continue strengthening and reviewing the MEM to monitor national and hemispheric efforts against drugs, and recommend concrete actions to encourage inter-American cooperation and national strategies to combat this scourge; Recommend:

    • Intensifying joint IDB-CICAD efforts in order to obtain financial resources from the international donor community, through consultative groups supporting anti-drug efforts, for alternative development, as well as demand reduction programs;

    • Establishing units with financial intelligence functions in countries that have not yet done so, with the support of CICAD and international agencies specialized in this area, and for which, in this context, it is recommended that CICAD and IDB training efforts be expanded;

    • Developing, within the framework of CICAD, a long-term strategy that includes a three-year program to establish a basic and homogeneous mechanism to estimate the social, human and economic costs of the drug problem in the Americas, and to support countries through the necessary technical assistance; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation and information exchange on policies and actions concerning drug prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and supply control, and develop educational campaigns to promote public awareness of the risk of drug consumption; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Support measures to impede organized crime, money-laundering, the diversion of chemical precursors, the financing of armed groups, and other illicit activities resulting from drug and arms trafficking; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation in order to consider in an integral manner the displacement phenomenon of different factors related to the drug problem, including the displacement of persons and illicit crops; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. Support the efforts of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to address their special security concerns, recognizing that for the smallest and most vulnerable states in the Hemisphere , security is multi-dimensional in scope, involves state and non-state actors and includes political, economic, social and natural components, and that the SIDS have concluded that among the threats to their security are illicit drug trafficking, the illegal trade in arms, increasing levels of crime and corruption, environmental vulnerability exacerbated by susceptibility to natural disasters and the transportation of nuclear waste, economic vulnerability particularly in relation to trade, new health threats including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic and increased levels of poverty; (Plan of Action Québec, 2001).

  1. We will lend new impetus to the struggle against corruption, money laundering, terrorism, weapons trafficking, and the drug problem, including illicit use, and work together to ensure that criminals do not find safe haven anywhere in the Hemisphere. We are determined to persevere in this direction (Declaration of Santiago, 1998).

  1. In forging an alliance against drugs and applying the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy, we welcome the start of formal negotiations at the May 4 meeting of Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) to be held in Washington within the framework of the Organization of American States (OAS), to establish an objective procedure for the multilateral evaluation of actions and cooperation to prevent and combat all aspects of the drug problem and related crimes, based on the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity of States, shared responsibility, and with a comprehensive and balanced approach (Declaration of Santiago, 1998).

  1. Continue to develop their national and multilateral efforts in order to achieve full application of the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy, and will strengthen this alliance based on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial jurisdiction of the States, reciprocity, shared responsibility and an integrated, balanced approach in conformity with their domestic laws. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. With the intention of strengthening mutual confidence, dialogue and hemispheric cooperation and on the basis of the aforementioned principles, develop, within the framework of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD-OAS), a singular and objective process of multilateral governmental evaluation in order to monitor the progress of their individual and collective efforts in the Hemisphere and of all the countries participating in the Summit, in dealing with the diverse manifestations of the problem. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Enhance their national policies and plans with regard to the prevention of illicit drug consumption, and step up measures, particularly at the community level, in schools and those aimed at the most vulnerable groups, such as children and young people, in order to prevent the growth and spread of this consumption and to eliminate financial incentives to illicit trafficking; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Develop or encourage the development of campaigns to foster greater social awareness of the dangers of drug abuse for individuals, the family and society as well as community participation plans; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Sensitize public opinion as to the serious effects of drug abuse and the activities of criminal organizations that deal with them, including at the wholesale and retail level; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Improve and update cooperative mechanisms to prosecute and extradite individuals charged with the traffic in narcotics and psychotropic substances and other related crimes , in accordance with international agreements, constitutional requirements, and national laws; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Reinforce international and national control mechanisms to impede the illicit traffic and diversion of chemical precursors; (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Eliminate illicit crops through the increased support of national alternative development programs as well as eradication and interdiction. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Strengthen national drug control commissions, with a view to improving coordination in each country in the planning and implementation of their respective national plans and in streamlining international assistance in this area (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Underscore the valuable contribution of civil society, through its different organizations, in the areas of prevention of illicit consumption, treatment, rehabilitation, and social reintegration of drug addicts. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Give full support to the upcoming Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly which will be held in June 1998 for the purpose of promoting international cooperation with respect to illicit drugs and related crimes and encourage all States to participate actively, at the highest level, in that international meeting. They will make every effort to ensure effective implementation of international narcotics agreements to which they have subscribed, at regional and subregional levels, and for these to operate in consonance with the hemispheric effort and reaffirm their support for CICAD and its fundamental role in the implementation of these agreements. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).

  1. Recognizing the pernicious effects of organized crime and illegal narcotics on our economies, ethical values, public health, and the social fabric, we will join the battle against the consumption, production, trafficking and distribution of illegal drugs, as well as against money laundering and the illicit trafficking in arms and chemical precursors. We will also cooperate to create viable alternative development strategies in those countries in which illicit crops are grown. Cooperation should be extended to international and national programs aimed at curbing the production, use and trafficking of illicit drugs and the rehabilitation of addicts (Declaration of Principles Miami, 1994).

  • 6.1 The problems of illegal drug and related criminal activities pose grave threats to the societies, free market economies, and democratic institutions of the Hemisphere. Drug use imposes enormous social costs; drug money and income are net drains on economic growth; and drug lords and criminal organizations endanger the security of our people through corruption, intimidation, and violence. While drug trafficking continues to be a significant source of illegal funds, the money laundering industry increasingly deals with the proceeds of all types of criminal activity. An integrated and balanced approach that includes respect for national sovereignty is essential to confront all aspects of these problems. For these reasons, a broad coordinated hemispheric strategy to reduce drug use and production, including new enforcement methods that can disrupt drug trafficking and money laundering networks and prosecutes those engaged in such activities, is required. In this context, governments note the work of the 1992 San Antonio Summit, endorse the efforts of the Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control, and agree to work together to formulate a counter-narcotics strategy for the 21st Century. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.2 Ratify the 1988 United Nations Convention Against the Illicit Traffic of Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances and make it a criminal offense to launder the proceeds of all serious crimes. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.4 As agreed by ministers and representatives of Caribbean and Latin American governments in the Kingston Declaration, November 5-6, 1992, implement the recommendations of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering and work to adopt the Model Regulations of the Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (CICAD). (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.6 Work individually and collectively to identify the region's narcotics trafficking and money laundering networks, prosecute their leaders, and seize assets derived from these criminal activities. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.7 Adopt programs to prevent and reduce the demand for and the consumption of illicit drugs. Adopt effective and environmentally-sound national strategies to prevent or reduce substantially the cultivation and processing of crops used for the illegal drug trade, paying particular attention to national and international support for development programs that create viable economic alternatives to drug production. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.8 Pay particular attention to the control of precursor chemicals and support comprehensive drug interdiction strategies (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.9 Strengthen efforts to control firearms, ammunition, and explosives to avoid their diversion to drug traffickers and criminal organizations (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.11 Convene a hemispheric-wide conference of donors, including multilateral development banks and UN agencies, to seek resources for alternative development programs aimed at curbing the production, trafficking, and use of illicit drugs, and the rehabilitation of addicts. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.12 Support the discussion the OAS has initiated with the European Union on measures to control precursor chemicals. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).

  • 6.13 Support the convening of a global counter-narcotics conference. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).



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